Burning insense at a pagodaBuddhism is the largest established religion in Viet Nam, with about 10 million followers.  Confucianism and Taoism were widespread during earlier Chinese domination, but Catholicism, introduced by European missionaries, is now the second most popular religion with some six million believers, the former French churches – having survived the wars surprisingly well – offer an unexpected sight in rural areas.

Tho Mau, originated in the north, and was integrated into indigenous beliefs such as the Thien Yana in Hue and the Lonh Son in Tay Ninh.  Cao Dai, introduced in 1926 and with its central church in Tay Ninh, has an estimated two million followers. The Hoa Hoa sect introduced in 1939 in southern and western Viet Nam, has some one million followers.