The last general population census in Cambodia in 2008 put the population at 13.4 million people. The majority of Cambodian people are ethnic Khmer and have inhabited this area since the beginning of recorded history. There are also significant populations of ethnic Chinese and Vietnamese in Cambodia, some who have been here for several generations. Cham Muslims form a large population throughout the country who are generally mainly involved in fishing activities.

Cambodia is also home to a diverse population of chunchiets (ethnolinguistic minorities) who traditionally live in the country’s remote mountainous regions in the north-east. Today, there are about sixty to seventy thousand minority people, including the Kreung and Jarai in Ratanakiri and the Pnong in Mondulkiri.